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Theses

Méthodes alternatives de renforcement musculaire : cas de l’imagerie motrice et de la stimulation électrique neuromusculaire

Abstract : An intense practice of resistance training, i.e. with heavy loads and a low number of repetitions, can cause injuries. To avoid them or limit detraining after an injury, alternative training methods have been developed. These methods have a double target since they also allow populations with different pathologies to practice a physical activity. This thesis focused particularly on the neuromuscular system and the mechanisms involved in strength development on plantar flexors muscles following motor imagery (MI), i.e. mental simulation of a movement without its concomitant motor output, and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), i.e. evoking contractions through electrical current applied on the muscles via surface electrodes.Study I argues in favor of the existence of a continuum of neural activation from rest to MI and from MI to contraction. At least, MI could represent a subliminal activation of neural structures which are shared with actual contraction. Study IIa showed similar gains in strength after NMES and MI trainings, both relying on neural adaptations which involved a larger part of the corticospinal system than usually expected, including both spinal and supraspinal plasticity. Surprisingly, alternating NMES and MI in the same training session did not imply strength gains, highlighting the fact that a combined training does not represent the sum of the gains of each modality. On the contrary, MI and NMES, depending on the parameters, could even imply competitive effects. Study IIb showed that MI seems to be an efficient training method to induce cross education, i.e. strength gains on the untrained limb after unilateral training of the other limb. On the contrary, NMES with our stimulation parameters did not induce cross education. These results highlight the fact that cross education does not necessarily require muscle activity on the trained leg. Study III did not reveal differences in modulation between sedentary participants, explosive athletes, and long-distance runners. A parallel study to this thesis put in evidence different neuromuscular profiles between explosive and sedentary subjects. The preliminary results of this study could suggest that physical practice, and more generally the neuromuscular profile of a subject, does not influence their responsiveness to a solicitation such as MI.
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Amandine Bouguetoch. Méthodes alternatives de renforcement musculaire : cas de l’imagerie motrice et de la stimulation électrique neuromusculaire. Education. Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020UBFCK041⟩. ⟨tel-03160635⟩

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