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Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts Nitrogen Source Preferences : Impact on Sequential Fermentation and Wine Volatile Compounds Profile

Antoine Gobert 1, * Raphaelle Tourdot-Marechal 1 Christophe Morge 2 Céline Sparrow 2 Youzhong Liu 1 Beatriz Quintanilla-Casas 3 Stefania Vichi 3 Hervé Alexandre 1 
* Auteur correspondant
1 VAlMiS - Vin Aliment Microbiologie et Stress
PAM - Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques, PAM - Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques [Dijon]
Abstract : Nitrogen sources in the must are important for yeast metabolism, growth, and performance, and wine volatile compounds profile. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) deficiencies in grape must are one of the main causes of stuck and sluggish fermentation. The nitrogen requirement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism has been described in detail. However, the YAN preferences of non-Saccharomyces yeasts remain unknown despite their increasingly widespread use in winemaking. Furthermore, the impact of nitrogen consumption by non-Saccharomyces yeasts on YAN availability, alcoholic performance and volatile compounds production by S. cerevisiae in sequential fermentation has been little studied. With a view to improving the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking, we studied the use of amino acids and ammonium by three strains of non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Starmerella bacillaris, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, and Pichia membranifaciens) in grape juice. We first determined which nitrogen sources were preferentially used by these yeasts in pure cultures at 28 and 20. C (because few data are available). We then carried out sequential fermentations at 20. C with S. cerevisiae, to assess the impact of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the availability of assimilable nitrogen for S. cerevisiae. Finally, 22 volatile compounds were quantified in sequential fermentation and their levels compared with those in pure cultures of S. cerevisiae. We report here, for the first time, that non-Saccharomyces yeasts have specific amino-acid consumption profiles. Histidine, methionine, threonine, and tyrosine were not consumed by S. bacillaris, aspartic acid was assimilated very slowly by M. pulcherrima, and glutamine was not assimilated by P. membranifaciens. By contrast, cysteine appeared to be a preferred nitrogen source for all non-Saccharomyces yeasts. In sequential fermentation, these specific profiles of amino-acid consumption by non-Saccharomyces yeasts may account for some of the interactions observed here, such as poorer performances of S. cerevisiae and volatile profile changes.
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Soumis le : lundi 18 décembre 2017 - 16:53:42
Dernière modification le : vendredi 20 mai 2022 - 09:06:36

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Antoine Gobert, Raphaelle Tourdot-Marechal, Christophe Morge, Céline Sparrow, Youzhong Liu, et al.. Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts Nitrogen Source Preferences : Impact on Sequential Fermentation and Wine Volatile Compounds Profile. Frontiers in Microbiology, Frontiers Media, 2017, 8, pp.2175. ⟨10.3389/fmicb.2017.02175⟩. ⟨hal-01666795⟩



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