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Modifications de l’olfaction au cours du vieillissement et de certaines pathologies neurodégénératives : mise au point

Abstract : Olfaction is a complex sensory system, and increasing interest is being shown in the link between olfaction and cognition, notably in the elderly. In this literature review, we revisit the specific neurophysiological features of the olfactory system and odorants that lead to a durable olfactory memory and an emotional memory, for which the implicit component produces subconscious olfactory conditioning. Olfaction is known to affect cognitive abilities and mood. We also consider the impairment of olfactory function due to ageing and to neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, through anatomopathological changes in the peripheral and central olfactory structures. The high frequency of these olfactory disorders as well as their early occurrence in Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease are in favour of their clinical detection in subjects suffering from these two neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, we analyse the impact of olfactory stimulation on cognitive performance and attention. Current observational data from studies in elderly patients with Alzheimer-type dementia are limited to multiple sensory stimulation methods, such as the Snoezelen method, and aromatherapy. These therapies have shown benefits for dementia-related mood and behaviour disorders in the short term, with few side effects. Since olfactory chemosensory stimulation may be beneficial, it may be Proposed in patients with dementia, especially Alzheimer-type dementia, as a complementary or even alternative therapy to existing medical strategies. (C) 2014 Societe nationale francaise de medecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
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Soumis le : vendredi 11 mars 2016 - 12:19:50
Dernière modification le : mercredi 24 août 2022 - 11:54:11




A.-J. Bianchi, H. Guépet-Sordet, Patrick Manckoundia. Modifications de l’olfaction au cours du vieillissement et de certaines pathologies neurodégénératives : mise au point. La Revue de Médecine Interne, Elsevier, 2015, 36 (1), pp.31-37. ⟨10.1016/j.revmed.2014.09.008⟩. ⟨hal-01286736⟩



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